Submit Raw Reads with Webin-CLI


Sequence read data can be submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) using the Webin command line submission interface with -context reads option.

A sequence read submission consists of:

  • General experiment information

    • Study accession or unique name (alias)

    • Sample accession or unique name (alias)

    • Experiment name

    • Sequencing platform

    • Sequencing instrument

    • Library name (optional)

    • Library source

    • Library selection

    • Library strategy

    • Free text library description (optional)

    • Insert size for paired reads (optional)

  • Read data file(s)

    • BAM file

    • CRAM file

    • Single Fastq file

    • Paired Fastq files

    • Multi-fastq files

Submission process

Prepare the files

The set of files that are part of the submission are specified using a manifest file. The manifest file is specified using the -manifest <filename> option.

A sequence read submission consists of the following files:

  • 1 manifest file

  • 1 BAM file, 1 CRAM file, 1-2 Fastq files or multiple fastq files

Manifest file

The manifest file has two columns and can be submitted in plain text format where the columns are separated by a tab (or any whitespace characters), or in JSON format where the columns are separated by a colon:

  • Field name (first column): case insensitive field name

  • Field value (second column): field value

The following metadata fields are supported in the manifest file:

Text manifest file format

The following file name fields are supported in the manifest file:

  • BAM: Single BAM file

  • CRAM: Single CRAM file

  • FASTQ: Single fastq file

For example, the following manifest file represents a paired Fastq submission:

INSTRUMENT Illumina Genome Analyzer II
FASTQ read1.fastq.gz
FASTQ read2.fastq.gz 

JSON manifest file format

The JSON manifest file format provides an option to prepare your submission in JSON. This can also be specifically used for more complex data types, such as multi-fastq submissions e.g. for single-cell data.. This is done by entering multiple file names and their respective read_type qualifiers.

The read_type attribute supports the following values:

  • single

  • paired

  • cell_barcode

  • umi_barcode

  • feature_barcode

  • sample_barcode

  • spatial_barcode

For example, the following manifest file represents a multi-fastq submission:

 "study": TODO,
 "sample": TODO,
 "name": TODO,
 "platform": "ILLUMINA",
 "instrument": "Illumina MiSeq",
 "insert_size": "390",
 "libraryName": TODO,
 "library-source": TODO,
 "library_selection": TODO,
 "libraryStrategy": TODO,
 "fastq": [
     "value": "single_cell_S1_L001_I1_001.fastq.gz",
     "attributes": {
       "read_type": "feature_barcode"
     "value": "single_cell_S1_L001_R1_001.fastq.gz",
     "attributes": {
       "read_type": ["paired", "umi_barcode"]
     "value": "single_cell_S1_L001_R2_001.fastq.gz",
     "attributes": {
       "read_type": "sample_barcode"
     "value": "single_cell_S1_L001_R3_001.fastq.gz",
     "attributes": {
       "read_type": ["paired", "cell_barcode"]

Metadata validation

Permitted values for platform

  • BGISEQ: Sequencers based on DNBSEQ by MGI Tech.

  • CAPILLARY: Sequencers based on capillary electrophoresis technology manufactured by LifeTech (formerly Applied BioSciences).

  • DNBSEQ: Uses DNA nanoballs(DNB) and regular array chips.

  • ELEMENT: Element Biosciences uses avidity sequencing: a polymerase inserts nucleotides, detected using fluorescence.

  • GENAPSYS: Chip based electronic sensing of polymerase extension reaction.

  • GENEMIND: Genemind Platform, a single-molecule gene sequencer.

  • HELICOS: Helicos is similar to 454 technology - uses 1-color sequential flows.

  • ILLUMINA: 54 technology use 1-color sequential flows: 454 technology use 1-color sequential flows.

  • ION_TORRENT: Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) from Life Technologies. Directly translates chemically encoded information (A, C, G, T) into digital on semiconductor chip.

  • LS454: 454 technology use 1-color sequential flows.

  • OXFORD_NANOPORE: Oxford Nanopore platform type. nanopore-based electronic single molecule analysis.

  • PACBIO_SMRT: PacificBiosciences platform type for the single molecule real time (SMRT) technology.

  • TAPESTRI: Tapestri Platform single-cell DNA genotyping using pre-configured or custom gene panels.

  • VELA_DIAGNOSTICS: VELA NGS platform measures the hydrogen ions that are generated during the incorporation of nucleotides in the DNA sequencing reaction.

  • ULTIMA: Ultima Genomics platform type. Flowing one nucleotide at a time in order, iteratively.


  • ABI_SOLID: ABI is 4-channel flowgram with 1-to-1 mapping between basecalls and flows.

  • COMPLETE_GENOMICS: CompleteGenomics platform type. At present there is no instrument model. Single-tube long fragment read (stLFR) technology.

Permitted values for instrument

  • 454 GS

  • 454 GS 20

  • 454 GS FLX

  • 454 GS FLX Titanium

  • 454 GS FLX+

  • 454 GS Junior

  • AB 310 Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3130 Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3130xL Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3500 Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3500xL Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3730 Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 3730xL Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 5500 Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 5500xl Genetic Analyzer

  • AB 5500xl-W Genetic Analysis System

  • BGISEQ-50

  • BGISEQ-500

  • DNBSEQ-G400


  • DNBSEQ-G50


  • Element AVITI

  • FASTASeq 300


  • GS111

  • Genapsys Sequencer

  • GenoCare 1600

  • GenoLab M

  • GridION

  • Helicos HeliScope

  • HiSeq X Five

  • HiSeq X Ten

  • Illumina Genome Analyzer

  • Illumina Genome Analyzer II

  • Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx

  • Illumina HiScanSQ

  • Illumina HiSeq 1000

  • Illumina HiSeq 1500

  • Illumina HiSeq 2000

  • Illumina HiSeq 2500

  • Illumina HiSeq 3000

  • Illumina HiSeq 4000

  • Illumina HiSeq X

  • Illumina MiSeq

  • Illumina MiniSeq

  • Illumina NovaSeq 6000

  • Illumina NovaSeq X

  • Illumina iSeq 100

  • Ion GeneStudio S5

  • Ion GeneStudio S5 Plus

  • Ion GeneStudio S5 Prime

  • Ion Torrent Genexus

  • Ion Torrent PGM

  • Ion Torrent Proton

  • Ion Torrent S5

  • Ion Torrent S5 XL

  • MGISEQ-2000RS

  • MinION

  • NextSeq 1000

  • NextSeq 2000

  • NextSeq 500

  • NextSeq 550

  • Onso

  • PacBio RS

  • PacBio RS II

  • PromethION

  • Revio

  • Sentosa SQ301

  • Sequel

  • Sequel II

  • Sequel IIe

  • Tapestri

  • UG 100

  • unspecified


  • Complete Genomics

  • AB SOLiD 3 Plus System

  • AB SOLiD 4 System

  • AB SOLiD 4hq System

  • AB SOLiD PI System

  • AB SOLiD System

  • AB SOLiD System 2.0

  • AB SOLiD System 3.0

Permitted values for library selection

  • RANDOM: No Selection or Random selection

  • PCR: target enrichment via PCR

  • RANDOM PCR: Source material was selected by randomly generated primers.

  • RT-PCR: target enrichment via

  • HMPR: Hypo-methylated partial restriction digest

  • MF: Methyl Filtrated

  • repeat fractionation: Selection for less repetitive (and more gene rich) sequence through Cot filtration (CF) or other fractionation techniques based on DNA kinetics.

  • size fractionation: Physical selection of size appropriate targets.

  • MSLL: Methylation Spanning Linking Library

  • cDNA: PolyA selection or enrichment for messenger RNA (mRNA); synonymize with PolyA

  • cDNA_randomPriming:

  • cDNA_oligo_dT:

  • PolyA: PolyA selection or enrichment for messenger RNA (mRNA); should replace cDNA enumeration.

  • Oligo-dT: enrichment of messenger RNA (mRNA) by hybridization to Oligo-dT.

  • Inverse rRNA: depletion of ribosomal RNA by oligo hybridization.

  • Inverse rRNA selection: depletion of ribosomal RNA by inverse oligo hybridization.

  • ChIP: Chromatin immunoprecipitation

  • ChIP-Seq: Chromatin immunoPrecipitation, reveals binding sites of specific proteins, typically transcription factors (TFs) using antibodies to extract DNA fragments bound to the target protein.

  • MNase: Identifies well-positioned nucleosomes. uses Micrococcal Nuclease (MNase) is an endo-exonuclease that processively digests DNA until an obstruction, such as a nucleosome, is reached.

  • DNase: DNase I endonuclease digestion and size selection reveals regions of chromatin where the DNA is highly sensitive to DNase I.

  • Hybrid Selection: Selection by hybridization in array or solution.

  • Reduced Representation: Reproducible genomic subsets, often generated by restriction fragment size selection, containing a manageable number of loci to facilitate re-sampling.

  • Restriction Digest: DNA fractionation using restriction enzymes.

  • 5-methylcytidine antibody: Selection of methylated DNA fragments using an antibody raised against 5-methylcytosine or 5-methylcytidine (m5C).

  • MBD2 protein methyl-CpG binding domain: Enrichment by methyl-CpG binding domain.

  • CAGE: Cap-analysis gene expression.

  • RACE: Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends.

  • MDA: Multiple Displacement Amplification, a non-PCR based DNA amplification technique that amplifies a minute quantifies of DNA to levels suitable for genomic analysis.

  • padlock probes capture method: Targeted sequence capture protocol covering an arbitrary set of nonrepetitive genomics targets. An example is capture bisulfite sequencing using padlock probes (BSPP).

  • other: Other library enrichment, screening, or selection process.

  • unspecified: Library enrichment, screening, or selection is not specified.

Permitted values for library source

  • GENOMIC: Genomic DNA (includes PCR products from genomic DNA).


  • TRANSCRIPTOMIC: Transcription products or non genomic DNA (EST, cDNA, RT-PCR, screened libraries).


  • METAGENOMIC: Mixed material from metagenome.

  • METATRANSCRIPTOMIC: Transcription products from community targets

  • SYNTHETIC: Synthetic DNA.

  • VIRAL RNA: Viral RNA.

  • OTHER: Other, unspecified, or unknown library source material.

Permitted values for library strategy

  • WGS: Whole Genome Sequencing - random sequencing of the whole genome (see pubmed 10731132 for details)

  • WGA: Whole Genome Amplification followed by random sequencing. (see pubmed 1631067,8962113 for details)

  • WXS: Random sequencing of exonic regions selected from the genome. (see pubmed 20111037 for details)

  • RNA-Seq: Random sequencing of whole transcriptome, also known as Whole Transcriptome Shotgun Sequencing, or WTSS). (see pubmed 18611170 for details)

  • ssRNA-seq: Strand-specific RNA sequencing.

  • miRNA-Seq: Micro RNA sequencing strategy designed to capture post-transcriptional RNA elements and include non-coding functional elements. (see pubmed 21787409 for details)

  • ncRNA-Seq: Capture of other non-coding RNA types, including post-translation modification types such as snRNA (small nuclear RNA) or snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), or expression regulation types such as siRNA (small interfering RNA) or piRNA/piwi/RNA (piwi-interacting RNA).

  • FL-cDNA: Full-length sequencing of cDNA templates

  • EST: Single pass sequencing of cDNA templates

  • Hi-C: Chromosome Conformation Capture technique where a biotin-labeled nucleotide is incorporated at the ligation junction, enabling selective purification of chimeric DNA ligation junctions followed by deep sequencing.

  • ATAC-seq: Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin (ATAC) strategy is used to study genome-wide chromatin accessibility. alternative method to DNase-seq that uses an engineered Tn5 transposase to cleave DNA and to integrate primer DNA sequences into the cleaved genomic DNA.

  • WCS: Random sequencing of a whole chromosome or other replicon isolated from a genome.

  • RAD-Seq:

  • CLONE: Genomic clone based (hierarchical) sequencing.

  • POOLCLONE: Shotgun of pooled clones (usually BACs and Fosmids).

  • AMPLICON: Sequencing of overlapping or distinct PCR or RT-PCR products. For example, metagenomic community profiling using SSU rRNA.

  • CLONEEND: Clone end (5’, 3’, or both) sequencing.

  • FINISHING: Sequencing intended to finish (close) gaps in existing coverage.

  • ChIP-Seq: ChIP-seq, Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation, reveals binding sites of specific proteins, typically transcription factors (TFs) using antibodies to extract DNA fragments bound to the target protein.

  • MNase-Seq: Identifies well-positioned nucleosomes. uses Micrococcal Nuclease (MNase) is an endo-exonuclease that processively digests DNA until an obstruction, such as a nucleosome, is reached.

  • Ribo-Seq: Ribosome profiling (also named ribosome footprinting) uses specialized messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing to determine which mRNAs are being actively translated and produces a “global snapshot” of all the ribosomes active in a cell at a particular moment, known as a translatome.

  • DNase-Hypersensitivity: Sequencing of hypersensitive sites, or segments of open chromatin that are more readily cleaved by DNaseI.

  • Bisulfite-Seq: MethylC-seq. Sequencing following treatment of DNA with bisulfite to convert cytosine residues to uracil depending on methylation status.

  • CTS: Concatenated Tag Sequencing

  • MRE-Seq: Methylation-Sensitive Restriction Enzyme Sequencing.

  • MeDIP-Seq: Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing.

  • MBD-Seq: Methyl CpG Binding Domain Sequencing.

  • Tn-Seq: Quantitatively determine fitness of bacterial genes based on how many times a purposely seeded transposon gets inserted into each gene of a colony after some time.

  • VALIDATION: CGHub special request: Independent experiment to re-evaluate putative variants.

  • FAIRE-seq: Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements. Reveals regions of open chromatin.

  • SELEX: Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment

  • RIP-Seq: Direct sequencing of RNA immunoprecipitates (includes CLIP-Seq, HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP).

  • ChIA-PET: Direct sequencing of proximity-ligated chromatin immunoprecipitates.

  • Synthetic-Long-Read: binning and barcoding of large DNA fragments to facilitate assembly of the fragment

  • Targeted-Capture: Enrichment of a targeted subset of loci.

  • Tethered Chromatin Conformation Capture:

  • OTHER: Library strategy not listed.

CRAM file validation

Reference sequence validation

Reference sequences in CRAM files are required to exists in ENA’s CRAM reference registry.

The Webin command line submission interface maintains two file based caches to avoid unnecessary calls to the registry:

  1. Cache for reference sequence checksums

  2. Cache for reference sequences

The cache for reference sequence checksums is stored in the $HOME/.webin-cli/cram-ref-info directory, where $HOME is the home directory for the user executing the program.

The cache for reference sequences is configured using the REF_PATH and REF_CACHE environmental variables as in samtools.

Webin-CLI Validation

When submitting data using the Webin command line interface, your files will be validated and uploaded to your private Webin file upload area in Any validation error reports are written into the <outputDir>/<context>/<name>/validate directory. Read more about validation reports on the Webin-CLI Submissions section.